What substances are secreted by the oral cavity of humansthat aid in digestion? Name these substances and tell what each does to help digestion

Human salivary alpha amylase (HSAmy) is an important enzyme found in the oral cavity. It belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family and exists in various isoforms in salivary secretions. Humans produce two kinds of alpha amylase (salivary and pancreatic amylase) that overall share about 97% homology.

HSAmy is a type of hydrolase that breaks down complex carbohydrates into simple sugars, like glucose or maltose, by cleaving alpha-1,4-glucosidic bonds. Further breakdown of the starch is completed by pancreatic amylase later in digestion.

This enzyme has distinct components including a calcium ion, chloride ion, and various amino acid residues that play critical roles in hydrolytic activity and substrate binding.

HSAmy can also bind to oral streptococci bacteria. This results in the bacteria either being removed from or stored in the oral cavity. Storage and accumulation of the bacteria in the oral cavity causes dental complications like plaque and tooth decay.

Digestive enzymes play a key role in regulating and maintaining the functions of the digestive system properly. These enzymes not only help in digestion but due to excess or lack of these enzymes, one can face difficulties in digestions too.

Have you ever thought how food gets digested inside our body after we consume? The internal structure of our body is extremely potent in carrying out numerous functions, amongst which digestion is the most vital of all the processes taking place. Here’s a list of Digestive Enzymes and their functions shared by Buzzle.com.

Tag: digestion