In early Greece and Rome, the most common state administered punishment was banishment or exile.
During the Middle Ages, persons found guilty of crime faced a wide range of punishment, including physical torture, whipping, branding, and for most felony offenses, death. During this era, the main stress of criminal law and punishment was on maintaining public order.
Wergild was used to repay the injured party and make sure that a personal crime would not develop into a blood feud and anarchy.
The development of the common law in the 11th century brought some standardization to penal practices. By the end of the 16th century, many offenders were made to do hard labor for their crimes. In England, transporting offenders to the colonies became popular.
By 1820, long periods of imprisonment in walled institutions called reformatories or penitentiaries started to replace physical punishment in England and the United States.
History is one of those subjects that can cause a lot of headaches for many students. This is why students may describe their History classes as long and dull (especially if you have the wrong teacher!)
However, a good knowledge of history is essential for all students, not just because it’s a common subject but also because it provides actual context to the reality in which we each live in and can be applied to current affairs and everyday life. Here are 5 tips on how to study history at Examtime.com.